and Herbs - Basic Ingredients
(Bahar): An aromatic berry of the pimento tree.
It tastes like a combination of cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg.
Amise or aniseed (Yansoon): The fragrant
seed of the amise plant.
Bay leaf (Ghar): An herb used mostly in
leaf form from the Grecian Laurel tree typical of the Mediterranean
Basil (Habbaq): A mild pungent leaf of
the mint family.
Black cherry kernal (Mahlab): Used in powdered
Caraway (Kharawieh): An herb; a small seed
from the parsley family.
Cardamom (Hab-el-hal): A fruit pod of the
Cinnamon (Erfeh): The inner peel of bark
from the trees of the Laurel family. It is sold in stick
form or as a powder.
Cloves (Remfall): A dried flower bud of
the tropical Evergreen tree of the Myrtle family.
Coriander (Kisbara): A seed of a plant
from the parsley family.
Cumin (Kamoon): Like a fennel seed of the
Fennel (Shoumar): A tall plant that produces
aromatic seeds of the parsley family.
Garlic (Toum): A pungent bulb.
Ginger (Zanzebel): A root of an oriental
Marjoram (Mardakoon): Of the mint family
with long spikes like flowers.
Mistka: The gum of a tree obtained from
an incision into the bark of a tree.
The sprigs or dried leaves form in the mint family group.
Nutmeg (Jawz a ‘tib): The aromatic kennels
of the nutmeg tree.
Onion (Bussell): The bulb of the Lily family
Orange blossom water (May-Zahir): A distillation
of the blossoms from the orange tree.
Oregano: An aromatic herb of the mint family.
Parsley (Bakdoones): An herb used fresh
Pepper (Flayfleh): The peppercorn of the
pepper family. Mostly used in ground or powdered form.
Poultry seasoning: A mixture of the herbs
sage, thyme and marjoram.
Rose water (May-warid): A distillation
of rose petals.
Rosemary (Iklil al Jabal): An herb of the
mint family group.
Sesame seed (Simsum): A seed of a dried
Sesame oil (Tehineh): Tehineh is made into
a white sauce from the raw sesame seeds.
Salt (Mileh): Used to flavor, enhance,
and preserve food.
Sumac: The dried berries from a sumac tree.
Thyme (Zaatar): An herb from a small plant
in the mint family group. It is best tasting if found in
Vanilla: A flavor extracted from the pod
like seed of the climbing tropical orchid.
Butter: It is sweet butter, without salt.
Cracked wheat (Burghal): It is made from
cracked wheat. It is crushed, boiled and, then, dried. It
is bought either in a coarse or in a fine grain form.
Clarified butter (Ghee/Semnah): Boil butter,
and set it aside. The residue stays on bottom. Pour into
sterilized jars and use in place of butter or ghee.
Debs ruman: Liquid or sauce made by squeezing
the fruit of the pomegranate tree.
Kishk: It is made from cracked wheat that
is fermented with yogurt. After it ferments, add salt and
grind it into powder form.
Mixed spices: It is a mixture of cinnamon,
nutmeg, cloves and pepper.
Olive oil: Oil in its natural form.
Pine nuts (Snowbar): The kennels of the
cones of the umbrella pine.
Pomegranate (Ruman): It is the fruit of
the pomegranate tree.
Yogurt (Leban): It is made from milk.
Zaatar mixture: A mixture is made with
approx. ½ c thyme, ½ c roasted sesame seed,
¼ c sumac, and salt to taste.
I do not mention preparation time for recipes because time
differs according to type of items bought and used.
1. Fresh items need to be washed, cut,
2. Canned product need less time.
3. Frozen: one must follow instructions.