panoramic views of Lebanon included on the site!
gateway to the sun, Doorway to man's Spirit!
is the mother of Europe. Europa was the daughter
of the king of Tyre, carried away by the god Zeus
who appeared to her under the form of a bull and
with her scoured the continent that now bears her
name. The awesome valley of the river Nahr Ibrahim
was the scene of the Dionysian Mysteries which celebrated
the love of Ishtar (Aphrodite, Venus) and Adonis,
who died and was reborn with the bacchanalia. The
written characters of the Phonicians were the basis
of the Greek alphabet and the four-yearly games
were another gift of Lebanon to Greece, to become
famous later as the Olympics.
genius of our Phoenician ancestors revealed itself
in various fields. With the alphabet and its ability
to make abstraction, they gave a symbol for each
sound. They were the first to observe that the phonetic
sounds number only a little over twenty, whereas
the Egyptian hieroglyphs or the Babylonian or Sumerian
pictographs ran into many thousands, so making communication
and exchanges difficult, complicated and long..
The alphabet is simple, easy, approachable and intelligible.
The alphabet has permitted the advance of civilization,
history, culture and exchange of ideas.
Lebanon, country of peaceful genius, humanism and
love, has an eight-thousand-year history of producing
philosophers, thinkers, mathematicians, magistrates,
soldiers, atomists, navigators, historians, scholars,
and pioneers in the fields of research, discovery,
metallurgy, industry and agriculture, serving humanity
in the past, the present and the future. Just pause
and think a minute before this living temple where
the light of knowledge and of values has always
burned brightly like a beacon guiding the Nations.
Let me name just a few of our renowned fellow-countrymen:
Thales, Euclid, Pythagoras, Sunkonyaton. Mokhos,
Cadmus and Zenon.
As for our mysteries, we have only to stop to consider
God, Il or El, the living God divine and human existing
well before the Greek Zeus or the Roman Jupiter,
precursor of our Emmanuel.
In this Phoenician religion, where alone there appeared
the idea of Resurrection, thousands of years slipped
by before our redemption through the death and resurrection
of the Messiah, the Christ.
Adonis, this handsome Phoenician god, killed by
a wild boar representing the forces of evil in this
world, was revived in the springtime and his soul,
like his blood, awakened all nature in a humanistic
and living mythology.
On this Phoenician soil, mankind saw the first house
of hewn stone supported on seven pillars, the Seven
Pillars of Wisdom.
The Pole Star, named by the Greeks “The Phoenician”
after its discoverer, is the one fixed star in the
wheeling heavens, so the idea of the compass was
transmitted from our shores to China, while the
true name of the Mediterranean was the Phoenician
Sea. And was not Noah’s Ark built of the wood
of our cedars? And what about the construction of
temples, and the exploring voyages around the Mediterranean
and Africa, with the Red Sea and Suez, and on to
America, the Baltic, Polynesia and New Zealand?
Let us pause a moment with those others of our country
– the emperors, Aurelius and Alexander Severus,
our Europa, daughter of Agenor and sister of Cadmus,
and Dido, our Helissa, of whom Virgil sang in his
is also a Holy Land, for the Gospels tell us that
Christ came to Tyre and Sidon, preached there and
performed a miracle to cure a Canaanite women. He
performed his first public miracle here, changing
water into wine, for now both historical references
in the Church Fathers and archæological evidence
confirm that the place referred to by John the Evangelist
was the Cana of South Lebanon.
the Beirut area there are universities and hospitals
of international standing. All along the coast there
are restaurants, beach lidos and places of entertainment
of every description, and of course supermarkets
put all the brand names of the world at the disposition
of the client.
can never be weary of Lebanon because there is so
much variety in a country only 10,452 km or 4,180
miles square. In a little less than an hour's drive
from the coast one reaches heights of over 2,000
metres or 7,000 feet without leaving the road. There
is fine skiing at a time when the Mediterranean
is warmer than the North Sea is in summer.
Arabic is the national language, everywhere there
are people who speak English and French, while those
of Beirut are largely trilingual. On the seaward
slopes of the Lebanon range one is in the world
of the Mediterranean, as shown by the traditional
architectural forms, the local cuisine and even
in some villages the peasant dress. In half an hour
one can cross the mountain divide and in the Bekaa
Valley find oneself in a world more Arab by its
climate, the style of the houses and even the men's
dress in some of the Christian and Muslim villages.
The coastal climate is ideal in spring and autumn,
though rather hot, humid and cloudy from late July
to mid-September. But throughout the summer the
climate of the Beqaa Valley and the higher mountain
slopes is very dry and the sky always blue, so the
sun is not at all disagreeable but rather enjoyable.
is probably no other country in the world where
a foreigner so easily feels thoroughly at home,
thanks to the open-mindedness of all the inhabitants
of Lebanon whatever their religion and community.
One finds whole villages tucked away on the mountain
slopes whose beauty and prosperity is due to emigrants
who have made their fortune in the Americas and
there are great numbers of professional men who
have pursued their studies in the universities of
Europe and the New World.
Christians belong to various Catholic and Orthodox
Churches of the Eastern rites. As for Muslims, there
are Sunnites and Shi' ites, as well as Druze. Foreign
news media and outside efforts to disrupt Lebanon
by a so-called civil war have given a totally false
impression of the relations between the different
religious communities in Lebanon and the visitor
can feel totally at ease anywhere.
is a land whose cities go back to the fifth millennium
before Christ. At Baalbek one may see the world's
largest Roman temple complex, while Beiteddine and
Deir al-Qamar are a fairyland.
is a land of such attraction that even during the
worst years of the war waged in Lebanon between
1975 and 1990, large numbers of foreign residents
could not find it in their hearts to leave it. This
will probably be the feeling of every visitor to
little history…and lots of stories
Lebanon (In Arabic)
in Lebanon (In Arabic)
in Lebanon by Friedrich Ragette
Do you wish to know
why this truck was stopping near this Lebanese forest...?
For a Green Lebanon
in the Mediterranean
in Lebanon Species and Distribution, Forest Fires...
to Lebanon, Travel to Beirut, Airport, Hotels…
Rules: Personal finance, Transport, holidays and
Endangered: Beaufort Castle, Serail of Baabda, Byzantine
History of Lebanese
Olive Tree Oil
Echoes of the Past, Little-known Natural Treasures,
places of worship in Lebanon - Churches in Lebanon
Islamic places of
worship in Lebanon - Mosques in Lebanon (In
Religion in Lebanon
and customs (In Arabic)
and Challenges (In Arabic)
does not bend (In Arabic)
Lichter des Libanons
Lebanon, Economic Social Indicators, Banking, Tourism...
in the History of the Lebanese Maronite order
a Christian martyr in the style of Maria Goretti
Nazi Car in Lebanon
of silk in Lebanon - sericulture
and knowledge in Phoenicia and Lebanon (In Arabic)
Jews in Lebanon - An old Community Fades Away
The Roman Temples
Splendors of Lebanon
N. 2385 of 17/1/1924 as amended by law N. 76 of
3/4/1999 ( articles 2, 5, 15, 49 and 85 ) lays down
as follows: The author of a literary or artistic
work, by the very fact of authorship, has absolute
right of ownership over the work, without obligation
of recourse to formal procedures. The author will
himself enjoy the benefit of exploitation of his
work, and he possesses exclusive rights of publication
and of the reproduction under any form whatsoever.
Whether the work in question comes under the public
domain or not those persons will be liable to imprisonment
for a period of one to three years and to fine of
between five and fifty million Lebanese pounds,
or to either one of these penalties, who 1-will
have appended or caused to be appended a usurped
name on a literary or artistic work; 2-will have
fraudulently imitated the signature or trademark
adopted by an author, with a view to deceiving the
buyer; 3-will have counterfeited a literary or artistic
work; 4-or will have knowingly sold, received, or
put on sale or into circulation a work which is counterfeit or signed with a forged signature. The punishment will be increased in the event of repetition.